Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) reconstruction, also known as Tommy John surgery has become common among baseball pitchers and other throwing athletes. Due to the repetitive motions of overhead throwing athletes, like major league pitchers, overuse and improper wear can lead to microscopic trauma.
Adaptation can be defined as the processes of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment. As we have discussed in previous posts, bones adapt and become stronger when subjected to stress. This stress makes bones become stronger and as a result able to tolerate more force, decreasing the potential of breaking.
We know how important the gut microbiota is for optimal health. We also know that gut dysbiosis has been found to be associated with diseases like Type 2 Diabetes, mellitus, cardiovascular, and inflammatory bowel disease as well as brain pathologies like autism, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
In the past we discussed that Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are on the rise, noting some staggering statistics on its prevalence. We also mentioned some functions of the ACL, like being a key player when slowing down from a run or sprint by helping prevent forward movement of the shin out from under the femur.
Bones play a very important role in motion and are the hardest connective tissue in the human body. Its unique makeup, consisting of cellular components (osteoblasts, osteoclasts etc.) and an extracellular matrix (minerals, reticular fibers etc.) allow for material distribution and thus providing unique properties of remodeling and shape changing when subject to challenges, stimuli or stress.
Joints in the body are lined with cartilage, which is a type of connective tissue that can be found throughout the body and is nourished by synovial fluid. Synovial fluid is present in all joint cavities and is responsible for the movement of nutrients and waste products, like proteins and metabolites. Specifically, synovial fluid provides nourishment to cartilage through the process of imbibition.